121 Electronic projects

121 digital tasks КНИГИ ;АППАРАТУРА Название: 121 digital initiatives Формат: PDF Размер: 12 MbCтраницы: sixty five Язык: English Сборник схем. Книга из серии МРБ.com. zero

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The cut plane—the top surface of the wafer—is known as the orientation cut. The (100) wafers dominate in both MEMS and CMOS technology, but wafers are also readily available with (111) orientation and, to a lesser degree, (110) orientation. It should be noted that saying that the surface of a wafer has a particular orientation such as (100) is arbitrary; any orientation within the equivalent {100} group of planes, such as (001), can alternatively be selected. , [100]) is often used instead; all are intended to mean the same thing.

3 Optical reflectivity for silicon and selected metals. ) applications. For example, experiments have shown that silicon remains intact in the presence of Freon™ gases as well as automotive fluids such as brake fluids. Silicon has also proven to be a suitable material for applications such as valves involving the delivery of ultra-high-purity gases. In medicine and biology, studies are ongoing to evaluate silicon for medical implants. Preliminary medical evidence indicates that silicon is benign in the body and does not release toxic substances when in contact with biological fluids; however, it appears from recent experiments that bare silicon surfaces may not be suitable for high-performance polymerase chain reactions (PCR) intended for the amplification of genetic DNA material.

Important Material Properties and Physical Effects 27 to an externally applied voltage. The effect was discovered in quartz by the brothers Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880 [22]. Its first practical application was in the 1920s when Langevin developed a quartz transmitter and receiver for underwater sound—the first Sonar! , as clock oscillators in computers and as ringers in cellular telephones). They are attractive for MEMS because they can be used as sensors as well as actuators, and they can be deposited as thin films over standard silicon substrates.

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