By ACI Committee 345
The service-life functionality of concrete bridge decks, together with upkeep, fix, and rehabilitation wishes, is without delay relating to the care exercised from the preconstruction via post-construction interval. This consultant presents strategies for bridge deck building in accordance with issues of sturdiness, concrete fabrics, reinforcement, putting, completing and curing, and overlays.
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Extra resources for ACI 345R-11: Guide for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction
S28 The award is binding on the parties. s38(2) Appeal on a point of law is allowed with the consent of all the parties or leave of the Supreme Court, resulting in only limited grounds for jurisdictional review. Some of the States’ Arbitration Acts go further in limiting the circumstances upon which leave to appeal may be granted. For example s38(5) in NSW requires there to have been ‘manifest error of law on the face of the award’ or ‘strong evidence that the arbitrator or umpire made an error of law and that the determination of the question may add or may be likely to add substantially to the certainty of commercial law’.
S14 subject to the arbitration agreement s14 allows the Arbitrator ‘to conduct the proceedings as he or she sees fit’. Recent interpretation of this section of the Commercial Arbitration Act by the Courts has varied between the States. 54 The judgment means that in South Australia Australia 17 ‘procedural justice requires that arbitrators should, in long complex arbitrations, follow as nearly as reasonable practicable the pre-trial pleading, discovery and other procedures of the court’ This concept has been strongly rejected in New South Wales55 and in other States the arbitrator is more free to conduct the proceedings as he sees fit under s14 of the Commercial Arbitration Act.
The Court of Appeal has stated: The power of the Court to appoint a person as a referee is discretionary…in many cases referees are appointed by consent and, indeed, the parties often select their own referee. 79 In addition to this common law ruling some other states have legislation providing for referees to have the same immunity as a judge of the court. Process Australia 23 The procedure, under a Part 72 reference, commences when the judge makes an order referring the whole of the proceeding or any question or questions arising in the proceeding out to a referee.