By Otto-Michael Lesch, Henriette Walter, Christian Wetschka, Michie Hesselbrock, Victor Hesselbrock
Alcohol and nicotine habit generally happen jointly. during the last ten years healing elements and motivational techniques were significantly enhanced. for this reason, teams and subgroups were outlined and will be taken care of with particular medicine and tailored psychotherapies, top within the long-term to significantly greater and greater effects than the as soon as commonly utilized, rigorous abstinence -based cures. even if, alcohol and nicotine dependancy nonetheless signify significant scientific and social difficulties. during this ebook, new healing ways are comprehensively defined, outlining the various interactions among character, setting and the consequences of the substance. as well as prevention-based remedies and prognosis, crucial mental and sociological innovations, in addition to medication-based cures, also are provided intimately. All of those cures have lifelike goals and are of world validity. moreover, the ebook presents a huge evaluate of the yank and ecu epidemiology of alcohol and nicotine addictions. The e-book is written for all those that take care of and supply specialist remedy for alcohol and nicotine-addicted sufferers.
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Extra resources for Alcohol and Tobacco: Medical and Sociological Aspects of Use, Abuse and Addiction
The occurrence of both forms of addiction in families is however not entirely genetic, but could also be partially explained by intoxication during pregnancy (a drinking and/ or smoking mother). Linkage and genome-wide association studies have examined the human genome, but the different loci identiﬁed to date have not yet been replicated. However, almost all of the speciﬁed loci appear to impact the regulation of the dopamine system. Furthermore, there are other ﬁndings implicating the noradrenalin system, the serotonergic system and the nicotine acetylcholine receptor.
Although children with the “fetal alcohol effect” (FAE) were exposed “in utero” to ethanol, they do not show all of the symptoms of FAS. Nevertheless, these children bear the consequences of the mother’s alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including learning difﬁculties, impaired language development etc. It has been estimated that there are twice as many children with FAE than children with FAS (up to 10 of 1000 new born children). Alcoholic mothers are often very reluctant to provide information about their alcohol use or addiction and therefore, in these cases, research can only depend on estimations.
The combination of alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy is particularly damaging to the unborn. The dopaminergic systems damaged by alcohol and smoking during their development and cell positioning in the fetal brain, are of particular interest. Neuroimaging studies show that 26 several brain regions are especially affected. O O O The corpus callosum is reduced in size and these reductions are also found in children with “Attention Deﬁcit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) where the frontal area is particularly affected.