By Henri Begleiter, Deirdre Winczewski, Richard Deitrich, Richard Fuller, Donald Gallant, Donald W. Goodwin, Edward Gottheil, Alfonso Paredes, Marcus Rothschild, David H. van Thiel, Marc Galanter
Quantity thirteen investigates the ways that age, gender, socioeconomic conditions, and genetics have an effect on competitive habit and vulnerability to alcoholism.
Read or Download Alcoholism & Violence: Epidemiology, Neurobiology, Psychology, Family Issues (Recent Developments in Alcoholism) PDF
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Extra resources for Alcoholism & Violence: Epidemiology, Neurobiology, Psychology, Family Issues (Recent Developments in Alcoholism)
Victim precipitation,” or the victim’s own role in influencing the course of the rape, is a socially sensitive issue. Progress has been made in relation to the problem of blaming the victim by police, the courts, and the general public in the two decades since Amir’s work. Amir’s analysis is not sensitive to these issues. However, keeping this in mind, Amir’s work contains some alcohol relationships that deserve further investigation. Amir35 defined victim precipitation as rape in a particular situation [in which] the behavior of the victim is interpreted by the offender either as a direct invitation for sexual relations or as a sign that she will be available for sexual contact if he will persist in demanding it.
Furthermore, as with all violent acts, there is a great range in the severity of the threat and the outcome. Although the rapes and attempts found in the Koss sample meet the legal definition of rape, they no doubt differ in many characteristics from the rapes found in samples of arrested and convicted rape offenders. Only 23% of the women to whom acquaintance rape happened described themselves as victims of rape; 44% of the victims reported having sex with the offender again. Muehlenhard and Linton,14 in a much smaller study of college students at a single university, show a significant relationship between alcohol and drug use and sexual aggression.
The level of force used by the offender varied by type of rape. Greatest force was used in stranger rapes and those involving family members. The least force was used on casual dates. However, alcohol use was greatest on casual dates for both women and men. Eighty-one percent of the men involved in rape on a casual date had used alcohol, as had 70% of the women. While the work of Koss and her colleagues suggests that alcohol use might be a risk factor for rape, there is no simple positive association between force and alcohol use.