An Introduction To The Philosophy Of Social Research (Social by M. Williams

By M. Williams

This is often an available advent to the philosophy of social examine which relates philosophical principles to real study perform. The e-book makes potent use of illustrations from the united kingdom, US and Europe to envision particular difficulties and broader matters. The publication is meant for undergraduate and postgraduate classes in social examine equipment inside of sociology, social coverage, politics, social psychology, human geography; philosophy of social technological know-how and social conception classes; and as a private reference for pro researchers.

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They are the cognitive and social dimensions. Let us briefly considered each of these. From a cognitive vantage point, we select phenomena from the world 16 SCIENCE: A SEARCH FOR METHOD on the basis of a learned classificatory system. For example, we are able to recognize and classify many different sizes, shapes and varieties of trees on the basis of learned “tree like” characteristics. The more we know about trees, the more sophisticated our classificatory system becomes. The characteristics that differentiate the species must be selected and what we select will depend on our knowledge of the phenomenon.

There have actually been many theories of truth, though we will confine ourselves to briefly considering three versions in order that some feel for the complexity of the topic might be obtained. The first idea of truth is the most intuitively obvious. It is the correspondence theory. Quite simply, something is true if there is agreement with the facts. This definition has a resonance with logic. It requires an agreement between premiss and conclusion, yet it entails two important difficulties. First, there 36 SCIENCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PROCESS is the logical problem of sentences such as, “this statement is false”.

Hume, it will be recalled, while noting that induction could not be logically justified, “explained away” our tendency to rely on it as a psychological pre-disposition. Popper claimed that this was mistaken (1979:85–90). His solution to the problem of demarcation rests on the need to logically solve the problem of induction. He achieves this by side-stepping it. The core of Popper’s falsification can be stated in the following terms: although any number of observations can never conclusively prove a theory, one disconfirming observation is sufficient to refute it.

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