Analog And Digital Electronics by U.A.Bakshi, A.P.Godse

By U.A.Bakshi, A.P.Godse

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Standard Lamination with Through Vias Advantages o Low cost (until layer count becomes too high) o Simple via models o Simple dielectrics – Primarily FR-4 o Mature process, “everybody does it” o High reliability (until layer count becomes too high) Disadvantages o If layer count becomes too high • Fewer fabrication vendors can obtain good yields, costs skyrocket ƒ Board can delaminate under high temperatures required for ROHS lead-free soldering o Via has to be large, reducing route-ability, increasing layers o Difficult to implement for BGA pin-pitches below 1mm o Through hole vias capacitively couple to every plane layer and signal losses increase with thickness o Long via stubs create impedance mismatches, reflections on single-ended nets o Large via pads often force differential pairs to be split under BGAs Notes o There are a number of tipping points where standard lamination with through vias is not viable o Once the board is over 28 layers, it becomes difficult to manufacture with acceptable yields and therefore can become cost prohibitive.

A number of example stackups will be presented with the advantages and disadvantages itemized along with a basic description of which via models, design rules work best. Some signal and power integrity concerns will also be discussed. Overview of Stackup Types In the context of boards that have high pin-count BGAs, there are three stackup types of interest: 27 BGA Breakouts and Routing 1. Standard Lamination with Through Vias Advantages o Low cost (until layer count becomes too high) o Simple via models o Simple dielectrics – Primarily FR-4 o Mature process, “everybody does it” o High reliability (until layer count becomes too high) Disadvantages o If layer count becomes too high • Fewer fabrication vendors can obtain good yields, costs skyrocket ƒ Board can delaminate under high temperatures required for ROHS lead-free soldering o Via has to be large, reducing route-ability, increasing layers o Difficult to implement for BGA pin-pitches below 1mm o Through hole vias capacitively couple to every plane layer and signal losses increase with thickness o Long via stubs create impedance mismatches, reflections on single-ended nets o Large via pads often force differential pairs to be split under BGAs Notes o There are a number of tipping points where standard lamination with through vias is not viable o Once the board is over 28 layers, it becomes difficult to manufacture with acceptable yields and therefore can become cost prohibitive.

The via stubs affect the differential pairs less than the single-ended nets and the crosstalk between the diff pair vias (if the unused pads are removed) is likely to be insignificant. • A stripline configuration, where pairs of signal layers are sandwiched between plane layers, not only provides the best return paths but also reduce crosstalk. This supports the notion that using a ground plane on the outer layers is a good practice. Recommended HDI Stackups What are the best HDI stackups for BGA breakouts and routing?

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