By Davide Bucci
Many instrumentation engineers and scientists usually care for analog digital concerns whilst impending gentle measurements. no matter if off-the-shelf measuring options exist, comprehension of the analog habit of the measuring approach is usually a necessity.
This ebook presents a concise advent to the most components of a low frequency analog acquisition chain. It goals to be sufficiently normal to supply an advent, but particular sufficient to lead the reader via a few classical difficulties which may be encountered within the topic. themes comprise sensors, conditioning circuits, differential and instrumentation amplifiers, lively filters (mainly for anti-aliasing reasons) and analog to electronic converters. A bankruptcy is dedicated to an advent to noise and digital compatibility.
This paintings is meant for individuals with a normal historical past in electronics and sign processing, who're searching for an advent to classical digital ideas hired in measuring tools related to low frequency analog sign processing.
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4. 1. Introduction In Chapter 1, we saw how the output of a sensor conditioning circuit is a voltage, which most of the time needs to be ampliﬁed. , referred to the reference node) but differential. 25. We thus need a circuit able to extract the differential voltage signal without perturbing it. We would also like to be able to easily adjust the differential gain of the circuit in a reasonable range by changing only one component of the circuit. The ability to extract the differential 48 Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems voltage regardless of the common mode voltage is quantiﬁed by the common mode rejection ratio parameter, which is ideally very high.
General description Some sensors are based on the change in dielectric polarization on a dielectric in response to external stimuli. For example: – In piezoelectric materials such as quartz crystals or speciﬁc ceramics and polymers, a mechanical deformation due to an applied force leads to the appearance of an electric ﬁeld. Therefore, if the sensor is inserted in a circuit, charges move to counterbalance the ﬁeld. – Small-scale rearrangements of the structure of some dielectrics occur when the temperature changes, giving rise to an electric ﬁeld.
12] whereas resistance R1−2 , measured between terminals 1 and 2, is simply twice Rf . 13] which is the resistance we want to measure. 24. 4. 25. It traces its origins in the ﬁrst half of the 19th Century and was originally employed to measure an unknown resistance by carefully adjusting other (known) resistances. The principle is to measure the voltage difference between nodes A and B in the bridge circuit. The voltage VAB is equal to zero only for a perfectly balanced bridge, condition that corresponds to the following equation: R 3 R 2 = R 1 R4 .