Analogue Electronics for Higher Studies by B. W. Allen (auth.)

By B. W. Allen (auth.)

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3 The differentiating circuit If the capacitor and resistor in the integrating circuit are transposed, a differentiating circuit is produced. When a rectangular wave is applied to this type of circuit, distortion known as sag occurs. The time constant of the C-R circuit determines the shape of the output waveform. 8, the time constant is a little les s than the pulse width. If the time constant is greater than the pulse width the output waveform will be more rectangular than shown. If the time constant is smaller than the pulse width it may appear as a short transitory ' spike '.

The stray capacitance, effectivelyin parallelwith hieofT2 and therefore shunting the signal, affects the performance at high frequencies. 29 2. 7 kQ, RB3 = 100 kQ , RB4 = 10 kQ , hsa = 2 kQ and Cs = 250 pF, calculate the percentage loss in gain at 1 MHz due to the presence of C«. 60. 9). e. the circuit impedance Z) isfoundfrom Analogue Electronics for Higher Studies 30 Therefore the signa/lost in Cs is Clearly such a loss cannot be ignored and further consideration of the effects ofC« willfollow later in this chapter.

Analysis of the circuit at frequencies in each of the three bands will now take place in order to develop expressions for amplifier gain. The first frequency to be selected will be in mid band so that the effects of Cc and C s will have negligible effect upon the analysis . 1 Analysis at 1 kHz (Typical mid band frequency) The reactance of the coupling capacitor at I kHz will be very low in comparison with other circuit resistances. As this low reactance is in series with the signal its effect will be very small .

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