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Extra info for Schaum's Outline of Organic Chemistry (4th Edition) (Schaum's Outlines Series)
F ) Addition and redox. The Br’s add to two C atoms of the ring. These C’s are oxidized, and the Br’s are reduced. (g) Redox. CH3CHO is oxidized and MnO 4− is reduced. (h) Elimination. An Hϩ and Cl− are removed from the same carbon (α-elimination). (i) Elimination and redox. The two Br’s are removed from nonadjacent C’s, giving a ring [see (c)]. 4 Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Reagents Reactions generally occur at the reactive sites of molecules and ions. These sites fall mainly into two categories.
The small amounts of salts that dissolve in nonpolar or weakly polar solvents exist mainly as ion-pairs or ion-clusters, where the oppositely charged ions are close to each other and move about as units. Tight ion-pairs have no solvent molecules between the ions; loose ion-pairs are separated by a small number of solvent molecules. 8 Resonance and Delocalized π Electrons Resonance theory describes species for which a single Lewis electron structure cannot be written. As an example, consider dinitrogen oxide, N2O: A comparison of the calculated and observed bond lengths show that neither structure is correct.
Notice that often the rate expression is insufficient to allow the suggestion of an unequivocal mechanism. More experimental information is often needed. 10 Brönsted Acids and Bases In the Brönsted definition, an acid donates a proton and a base accepts a proton. The strengths of acids and bases are measured by the extent to which they lose or gain protons, respectively. In these reactions, acids are converted to their conjugate bases and bases to their conjugate acids. Acid-base reactions go in the direction of forming the weaker acid and the weaker base.